Over nearly 50 years of publication, Terra et Aqua has benchmarked innovative maritime solutions through more than 150 issues. Articles are available here as well as in IADC’s Knowledge Centre.

The CO2-related aspects of a dredging project are quite significant. The Sand Motor, shown here, was built on the Dutch coast and required extensive sand excavation which uses an enormous amount of energy. It is one of four projects being studied to develop a design tool aimed at calculating the CO2 footprint over the lifecycle of a project and do it from the start, in the design phase (see page 16).
136
Published September 2014

Terra et Aqua 136 – complete issue

Read the complete issue containing articles, upcoming events, an interview and book review.

Reducing Shoaling in the Texas GIWW and Erosion of Barrier Islands Along West Galveston Bay

How to protect the environment of the Texas Gulf Intracoastal Waterway and preserve a crucial economic link as well.

Pressing the Co2 Buttons: Towards Ecosystem-Based Co2 Footprinting for Maritime Engineering Projects

Reducing the carbon footprint of dredging operations is a major industry concern – and the solution starts with the design phase and continues through the whole lifecycle.

Utilising the Full Potential of Dredging Works: Ecologically Enriched Extraction Sites

Rather than focus on minimising negative effects, ecologically designed sand mining can maximise positive opportunities to dredge and create new habitats.

(Cover) Building 41 km of causeways and 25 drilling islands at the Manifa Oil Field in Saudi Arabia required huge quantities of rock. Amongst other innovative techniques, hydraulically created sand bunds were finished by using extra-long reach excavators from the land side to install a slope protection of a rock underlayer installed on heavy duty geotextile.
135
Published June 2014

Terra et Aqua 135 – complete issue

Read the complete issue containing articles, upcoming events, an interview and book review.

Manifa Oil Field: Large Scale Experiences with Breakwaters – An Innovative Approach

Finding a huge quantity of rock for 41 km of causeways and drilling islands and guaranteeing that the quality was sufficient required an extremely well thought-out Quality Management System.

“Engineering with Nature” Promotes Triple-Win Outcomes

When you think out of the box, science and engineering can lead to practical solutions for both the protection of nature and sustainable economic developments.

Monitoring Programme for the MV2, Part IV – Archaeological and Palaeontological Finds

Amongst all the studies done at the MV2 Port of Rotterdam expansion, none was more exciting than the discovery of the Middle Stone Age civilisation that flourished on the Maas-Rhine delta 9,000 years ago.

Dredging at the Port of Lisbon. In order to obtain five-year environmental licences which would expedite the regular and systematic dredging of the beds of its access channels and manoeuvring and anchorage basins, the Port of Lisbon Authority developed new strategic plans for dredging and monitoring within the Tagus estuary (see page 5).
134
Published March 2014

Terra et Aqua 134 – complete issue

Read the complete issue containing articles, upcoming events, an interview and book review.

Land Reclamation Using Calcium Oxide (CaO) Improved Soil in Japan

An increase in the quantity of dredged material combined with a decrease in available land for disposal has led to extensive research for unusual ways to improve and use the dredged soil.

Practical Claims Avoidance Techniques: How to Prevent Excess Costs and Unnecessary Delay on Dredging Projects

Demands on worldwide ports caused by ever larger ships means ever more dredging. Deeper channels, tighter dredge envelopes and stricter environmental restrictions can result in greater risks.

The Port of Lisbon, Portugal: Maintenance Dredging in a Sensitive Environmental System

With dredging responsibility for 11 municipalities along the environmentally sensitive Tagus estuary, the Port Authority of Lisbon needed an integrated strategic dredging plan. After detailed studies, they got it.

n Japan securing disposal fields to receive soft dredged material is a growing challenge. As a result, research for recycling soft dredged material to solidify it for construction purposes is highly advanced.
133
Published December 2013

Terra et Aqua 133 – complete issue

Read the complete issue containing articles, upcoming events, an interview and book review.

Construction of a Perimeter Bund Using the Pre-Mixed (PM)-Clay Method

Authors: Taku Saitoh

In Japan securing disposal fields to receive soft dredged material is a growing challenge. As a result, research for recycling soft dredged material to solidify it for construction purposes is highly advanced.

Geotextile Tubes as a Replacement for Rockfill for the Polder Dike in South Korea

Building a Polder Dike using a sand-filled geotextile core with a rock revetment – instead of a rock-filled berm – reduced costs, saved construction time and resulted in a smaller carbon footprint.

Subsoil Improvement Works at DVIZ, Haiphong, Vietnam

As Vietnam seeks a balance between preserving land for agriculture and finding space for industry, creating new land is one solution. But waiting for subsoil to settle naturally at reclamation sites is time-consuming and costly.

Aerial plan of the Brisbane Airport, where a New Parallel Runway is being built: This runway is a critical part of Brisbane Airport Corporation’s multi-billion dollar investment into capacity-building infrastructure. The challenges of this project were met with early contractor and stakeholder involvement to determine what was achievable within the confines of an operating airport (see page 13).
132
Published September 2013

Terra et Aqua 132 – complete issue

Read the complete issue containing articles, upcoming events, an interview and book review.

Monitoring Programme for the Maasvlakte 2, Part III – The Effects of Underwater Sound

TNO’s acoustic surveys of dredgers during all phases of the dredging cycle showed that permanent hearing threshold shift was not exceeded in any cases studied or in any species in question.

On Public Procurement Rules in the EU and Early Contractor Involvement, Part II: Case Studies

Authors: Frederik Mink

Despite strict competition laws, the EU is reviewing some new procurement procedures that would allow a contracting authority leeway in negotiating early on with potential contractors.

The Art of Screening: Effectiveness of Silt Screens

To minimise the possible impacts of suspended sediments in environmentally sensitive areas, silt screens are often employed, but their effectiveness may be questionable.

During construction of the Maasvlakte 2 block dam, laser scans and multibeam surveys were conducted to verify tolerance as the blocks were placed. As each 50-m section of the breakwater was ready, it was handed over to the client with a combined 3D model of the multibeam and laser scan data, such as the one pictured here (see page 18).
131
Published June 2013

Terra et Aqua 131 – complete issue

Read the complete issue containing articles, upcoming events, an interview and book review.

Innovative Design, Techniques and Equipment at Maasvlakte 2, Port of Rotterdam

Authors: Eric Peeters

To meet the demands of this massive extension, engineers had to think out of the box – utilising Pleistocene sand, recycling rock from an old block dam and inventing new equipment and survey systems.

Client-Contractor Participation can Improve Safety Performance

Authors: Lonneke Holierhoek

Contractors’ safety management systems are better than ever, and if clients are willing to join in, they can benefit from these advances.

OpenEarth: A Knowledge Management Workflow for Dredging Projects

Reinventing the wheel for every project is not cost-efficient. A new knowledge database offers a free, open, transparent and continually growing source of data, models and tools.

A survey ship with a specially developed silt profiler – designed and constructed in 2009 and owned by the Port of Rotterdam – follows a trailing suction hopper dredger at work to measure active and surface plumes. This was an integral part of the extensive monitoring programme at the Maasvlakte 2 expansion project in Rotterdam (see page 20).
130
Published March 2013

Terra et Aqua 130 – complete issue

Read the complete issue containing articles, upcoming events, an interview and book review.

The Monitoring Programme for the Maasvlakte 2 Construction at the Port of Rotterdam – Part II

Given the inter-dependence of the underwater food chain from benthic fauna and algae to shells, worms, fish and birds, a new modelling strategy was instituted to evaluate the effects of enhanced silt concentrations during dredging.

Dredging and Disposal at Lough Foyle, Northern Ireland

Is it possible for an in-site disposal area to be environmentally and economically preferable to an offshore disposal site? Real-time monitoring says yes, there are numerous benefits to the disposal of dredged material in-site.

Erosion Behaviour of a Draghead

The IADC Young Author Award-winning paper verifies the agreement between the theoretical calculations for a new toothless draghead and the real situation when the draghead is being used.

The “soft” side of the closure of the sea wall at the Port of Rotterdam’s Maasvlakte 2 extension project, where sand was rainbowed onto the outer contour, was initiated in July 2012. This land reclamation increases the area of the Port of Rotterdam by 20% and makes the Netherlands 2,000 hectares larger. With a coastline 3.5 km further into the sea, it required extensive monitoring before, during and after construction (see page 16).
129
Published December 2012

Terra et Aqua 129 – complete issue

Read the complete issue containing articles, upcoming events, an interview and book review.

The Monitoring Programme for the Maasvlakte 2 Construction at the Port of Rotterdam

Compliance for permitting was not enough for the monitoring team at the Port of Rotterdam. When they discovered gaps in scientific knowledge, they initiated more research.

CHILD – “Colleagues, Help Injuries to Leave DEME” – IADC 2012 Safety Award

Authors: Lieven Durt

Hard lessons at a project led to a huge shift in safety awareness, where 4000 employees learnt that each person must take responsibility, not only for themselves, but also for their colleagues.

On Public Procurement Rules in the European Union and Early Contractor Involvement

Authors: Frederik Mink

Benefiting from early contractor involvement does not necessarily violate the European Union’s principles of freedom to supply goods and services.

The newly expanded Falmouth Cruise Ship Terminal in Trelawny, Jamaica. To realise the dredging and reclamation works required for this economically important port project, an extensive environmental mitigation plan was implemented to preserve coral and other marine life by harvesting coral colonies, transporting and reattaching them at suitable locations and monitoring their health (see page 15).
128
Published September 2012

Terra et Aqua 128 – complete issue

Read the complete issue containing articles, upcoming events, an interview and book review.

Dredging Phase I of the Non-Time Critical Removal Action in the Lower Passaic River

Removing sediments with high dioxin concentrations requires extra care, with modern surveying and tracking techniques from beginning to end, from dredging to a high-tech dewatering process to the final disposal.

Coral Relocation: A Mitigation Tool for Dredging and Reclamation Works at the Cruise Ship Terminal in Jamaica

To realise a state-of-the-art cruise terminal, a comprehensive environmental mitigation plan relocated some 150,000 soft and hard coral, sponges and numerous sea urchins, sea cucumbers, hermit crabs, conchs, sea stars and lobsters.

Former Scott Paper Mill Remediation and Restoration

Authors: John Herzog

Going beyond the basic cleanup requirements led to improved public access to a waterfront park with a shoreline esplanade, restored beach, shoreline habitat areas, a pier and dock for small boats.

New Land in the Water: Economically and Socially, Land Reclamation Pays

Authors: Rene Kolman

When expanding populated urban centres, old inner city land or the hinterland is often expensive, uneconomical or unavailable. Building new land in nearby water offers viable opportunities.

The reclamation areas on the Danish island Lolland (dashed white lines) are an essential part of the sustainable design for the proposed Fehmarnbelt Fixed Link connecting Scandinavia and continental Europe. The design ensures that the reclamation areas do not extend beyond the existing ferry harbour at Rødbyhavn and do not impact the protected area at Hyllekrog (see page 20).
127
Published June 2012

Terra et Aqua 127 – complete issue

Read the complete issue containing articles, upcoming events, an interview and book review.

Marine Works Operations and Environmental Considerations When Building the Fehmarnbelt Tunnel

The Fehmarnbelt Fixed Link connecting Scandinavia and continental Europe will most likely become a tunnel rather than a bridge, but how it will be dredged is still to be determined.

Flexibility in Port Infrastructures

The use of flexible and sustainable-solutions infrastructures should be promoted – though initially more costly, these may prove economical over the whole life cycle of a port.

Important Engineering Properties of Geotextile Sand Containers

No proper design guidelines based on sound science are available for the design of GSC structures. This IADC Young Author Award paper describes on-going research which aims to remedy this.